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Tituba

Node Type Description Visible Clusters Connections Relevance Betweenness Closeness Coreness
American Horror Story: Coven Pop Culture
Portrays more accurately the debate scholars are having over how to accurately place Tituba in the European witch category or in African voodoo as the character Queenie the ancestor of Tituba is pulled between two covens. The show makes the argument that while it is important to be intersectional at the particular time period of today’s contexts rather than fight over what divides women they must come together to fight.


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Anna Mae Duane Scholar of Petry
Duane, Anna Mae. 2012. "Tituba of Salem Village." Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 5 (1): 154-156. http://libproxy.sdsu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.sdsu.edu/docview/1010322461?accountid=13758.
  • Critiques Petry for believing Tituba was black page 155
  • Argues that Petry’s book opens a valuable teaching moment for students to understand the realities behind slavery page 155

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Ann Petry Scholar
She is a scholar that wrote Tituba of Salem Village (1964) she argued: 
  • Tituba lived in Barbados 
  • Tituba and her husband had dark brown skin pg. 2
  • Pg. 3 - Tituba was with Mistress Endicott since she was 14 and urged her to buy her future husband John. 
  • Pg.4 - She learned how to tell fortunes by a gypsy woman per Mistress Endicott’s request
  • Pg. 3-5 Tituba and her husband were sold to Reverend Parris
  • Pg. 7 - Her and her husband believed originally in the Church of England
  • Pg. 7 - They were given the last name Indian because they had no last name. It was Indian because they were from Barbados which is part of the West Indies 
  • Pg. 36 - Tituba saw Abigail Adams as a threat and an enemy 
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Arthur Miller Scholar
His infamous play The Crucible has painted how a majority believe what really happened during the Salem witch trials 
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Bernard Rosenthal Scholar
Rosenthal, Bernard. "Tituba." OAH Magazine of History 17, no. 4 (2003): 48-50. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163623.

  • Little knowledge is known about tituba (page 48)
  • “In terms of hard facts, we know very little. She was the servant of Parris, which almost certainly meant his slave. She probably came from Barbados, although that is not certain. No legal document identifying her as a married woman or giving us a clue as to her origin survives from the time of her confession in 1692. The first printed reference to Tituba as a married woman appears in Robert Calef s More Wonders of the Invisible World (1700), in which he published an account by Nathaniel Cary of his experiences in 1692. Cary refers to an unnamed Indian male and "his Wife, who also was a Slave, [who] was imprison'd for Witchcraft" (3).” (page 48)
  • Typically women are defined by their marital status yet, Tituba is the exception (page 48)
  • Breslaw’s work is speculative (page 49)
  • “But the modern myth of Tituba begins in the mind of Charles W. Upham. When Upham first wrote of Tituba in 1831 in his Lectures on Witchcraft, Comprising a History of the Delusion in Salem in 1692, referring to her as an old Indian woman, he offered no dramatic creation of myth” (page 49)
  • “However, in the book that followed in 1867, Salem Witchcraft, Upham created the narrative from which almost all accounts of Tituba would follow (9). Upham introduced the notion that Tituba had brought frightening tales of witchcraft from her homeland. More pointedly, Upham created the image of Tituba and a circle of girls participating in narratives that "in flamed the imaginations of the credulous" (10). This "circle" and this image of Tituba telling stories, took hold powerfully in American imagination, popular and scholarly. There is no authority for this ever having happened. No contemporary document carries the story invented in the nineteenth century” (page 49)
  • The common narrative of Tituba comes from Charles Upham (page 49)
  • The myth of a dark vindictive woman releasing evils into the work did not originate from Tituba, but instead is a featured narrative throughout time and can be traced back to the ancient world. (page 50)
  • Praises Conde’s interpretation and willingness to give life and voice to a complex character (page 50)
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Bryan Le Beau Scholar of Breslaw
The American Historical Review 102, no. 2 (1997): 512-13. doi:10.2307/2170946.
  • Breslaw attempts to end the fiction and romanticism revolving around Tituba page 512
  • “Employing West Indian colonial records never before examined, as well as a cultural critique that explores Tituba's Caribbean Creole culture and its relationship to that of Puritan New England, Breslaw paints a portrait of this previously elusive figure” (page 512)
  • Not a true victim because she was willing to testify and wanted to destroy the Salem religion within  (page 512)
  • Breslaw makes the argument that her persecution was not based upon race rather it much more nuanced (page 513)
  • “This shift to a more secular society, Breslaw concludes, was not conceived by the elite and imposed on the masses. It was ‘change from the bottom up, initiated by an Indian woman slave’ (pp. 180-81)” (page 513) 
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Charles Upham Scholar
Rosenthal, Bernard. "Tituba." OAH Magazine of History 17, no. 4 (2003): 48-50. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163623.


  • “But the modern myth of Tituba begins in the mind of Charles W. Upham. When Upham first wrote of Tituba in 1831 in his Lectures on Witchcraft, Comprising a History of the Delusion in Salem in 1692, referring to her as an old Indian woman, he offered no dramatic creation of myth” (page 49)
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Elaine Breslaw Scholar
A scholar who wrote  Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem (1995) argues:
  • Tituba's confession led to the witch trials 
  • She is multidimensional as a woman, a slave, American Indian, and as an outsider in a puritan society 
  • She started a resistance and used the puritan assumptions of Satanism
  • Practiced voodoo
  • Why many scholars haven't tackled her = lack of info
  • Heritage= native American and there is no evidence of her being connected to African heritage
  • Partially blames Charles Upham for the confusion who got false information from Samuel drake
  • It is possible she was born in Barbados but regardless she was descendants of captives to the island.
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Maha Marouan Scholar
She is a scholar that wrote the 2013 book entitled Witches, Goddesses, & Angry Spirits. She argues:
  • Tituba is a forgotten figure in the witch hunt and could be overlooked because of the complexity of her character page 17
  • “She was a Christianized Indian from Barbados who practiced white European magic she learned from her English mistress and was gradually transformed in the American imagination to a black woman who practiced ‘Voodoo.’ page 17
  • Is vehemently against the portrayal of Tituba in the play The Crucible page 17
  • Claims that the first attempt to record Tituba’s story was by writer Ann Petry in Tituba of Salem Village (1964) as a way to shed an intelligent light on her and to make her into a role model page 104
  • Conde and Petry both try to empower Tituba and give a voice to a character that was silenced page 104
 
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Maryse Conde Scholar
She is a scholar that wrote the book I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem by Maryse Conde and forward by Angela Y. Davis 1986
Angela Y. Davis introduction: 
  • Conde’s work is her fictional revenge but she must tread carefully to not be like those her enslaved her
  • This was through the lens of African American studies 
  • Draws an analogy that her (Angela Y. Davis) background and history and Tituba’s are very similar and one in the same 
  • She is from the West Indies 
  • Conde was filling the silence with a voice
  • She spent her formative years in Barbados 
  • There is a debate surrounding her race that is possible because some may try to stir up enmity between Black and Native Americans 
Conde: 
  • Tituba was born of rape on a slave ship and her mother was 16 
  • This was told as if Tituba wrote it 
  • Discussed how caucasian women was also enslaved to her husband 
  • Yao raised her as his own pg. 5
  • Her name is not an Ashanti name Yao probably invented it to prove she was his daughter pg. 6 
  • Her mother was hanged and father sold off but committed suicide pg. 7 - 9


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Salem TV series Pop Culture
A TV series started 2014 to present on the WGN sent in the era of the Salem Witch Trial:

Season 1 episode 1: terms such as “Indian savages” portrays the Indian war that was ongoing during the period and in the beginning displays public humiliation and punishment in the stalks for two people accused of fornication in order to have god on Salem’s side in the war. John leaves the town from the french and Indian war. Tituba assists and almost insists Mary has to abort her child with John. Tituba uses magic to abort the baby. Seven years later John returns as the Salem witch trials are beginning after 3 people were hung. John and his father discuss how Cotton Mather caused the witch panic to draw up more popularity for the puritan faith. It displays Mary as the key component in using the witch trials to make the puritans turn on each other.


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Suzanne Roszak Scholar of Conde and Miller
Roszak, Suzanne. 2014. Salem Rewritten Again: Arthur Miller, Maryse Conde, and Appropriating the Bildungsroman. Comparative Literature. 66, no. 1: 113.

  • While Conde’s book I, Tituba was in no way a factual historical retelling of Tituba’s life and despite the critiques she has received for instance, “As critics such as Mara L. Dukats have pointed out, ‘Condé’s narrative claims neither to be ‘history’ nor to constitute ‘historical truth’ . . . . Filling in the blank spaces of lost history is thus not the primary focus of Condé’s novel”’(143)” it is a necessary analysis to critique future and current scholars in the subject that her story is incomplete (page 119)
  • Conde’s novel despite historians aversion to narrative histories because a historian can never truly understand the feeling and thoughts of their subject I,Tituba serves an important function of the scholarship process (page 120)
  • Conde argues that Tituba longs to belong in the society and is analogous to Arthur Miller’s treatment of John Proctor (page 121)
  • “In the process, Condé condemns the structures of slavery and racial prejudice that made integration impossible for Tituba in Salem, levying a hefty critique of this period in American history and revealing the bias inherent in the contemporary scholarship that so insistently vilifies her.” (page 121)

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Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought School of thought
The argument that Tituba is an important and symbolic figure to represent the feminist school of thought.
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Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem School of thought
Tituba has little clear and substantive knowledge about her life thus scholars have taken advantage of moldable qualities to argue current quagmires.
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Tituba led a resistance School of thought
The school of the thought that Tituba was purposely leading a resistance against the Puritan society.


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Tituba subscribes to the Voodoo religion School of thought
The historical camp that believes that Tituba was a believer of Voodoo and some scholars say that her belief was strong enough to be a Voodoo priestess.


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Tituba was African American School of thought
The philosophy that Tituba was a African American slave
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Tituba was a Native American School of thought
The belief that Tituba was Native American some the evidence scholars use that John and her  last name was Indian

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Tituba was not a Voodoo priestess School of thought
The argument that Tituba did not practice or believe in Voodoo instead some scholars argue that she was Christianized.
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Source Link Target Date Why there is a connection
American Horror Story: Coven Historical camp Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought
American Horror Story: Coven Historical camp Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem
American Horror Story: Coven Historical camp Tituba led a resistance
American Horror Story: Coven Historical camp Tituba was African American
Anna Mae Duane Reviews and Critiques Ann Petry
Ann Petry Historical camp Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem
Ann Petry Historical camp Tituba subscribes to the Voodoo religion
Ann Petry Historical camp Tituba was African American
Arthur Miller John Proctor Maryse Conde
Bernard Rosenthal Reviews and Critiques Charles Upham
Bernard Rosenthal Reviews and Critiques Elaine Breslaw
Bernard Rosenthal Reviews Maryse Conde
Bernard Rosenthal Historical camp Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought
Bernard Rosenthal Historical camp Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought
Bernard Rosenthal Historical camp Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem
Bernard Rosenthal Historical camp Tituba was African American
Bryan Le Beau Reviews Elaine Breslaw
Charles Upham Historical camp Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem
Charles Upham Historical camp Tituba was African American
Elaine Breslaw Reviews and Critiques Charles Upham
Elaine Breslaw Historical camp Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought
Elaine Breslaw Historical camp Tituba led a resistance
Elaine Breslaw Historical camp Tituba was a Native American
Elaine Breslaw Historical camp Tituba was not a Voodoo priestess
Maha Marouan Historical camp Tituba led a resistance
Maha Marouan Historical camp Tituba was not a Voodoo priestess
Maryse Conde Historical camp Tituba is a symbol of feminist thought
Maryse Conde Historical camp Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem
Maryse Conde Historical camp Tituba was African American
Salem TV series Historical camp Tituba led a resistance
Suzanne Roszak Reviews Arthur Miller
Suzanne Roszak Reviews Maryse Conde
Tituba is molded to fit the Author's issue with their current problem Conde Tituba was African American

Description

by Jade Connolly-Cepurac